Assam is one of the richest Biodiversity areas in the World. In 2022 (Seven) 7 National Parks In Assam and seventeen (17) Wildlife Sanctuaries, these forest areas harbor a wide variety of flora, fauna and avifauna. From the mighty One Horned Rhinoceros, the Indian Tigers, Asiatic Elephants, Hoolock Gibbons, Golden Langurs, etc. Assam has a plethora of varied fauna that are not to be found anywhere in this world. Assam is surrounded by the Indian States of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura.
The Assam also shares its international borders with Bangladesh, Bhutan and is at close proximity to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. The unique biodiversity of Assam has earned the state a distinct reputation of unspoilt natural wonders, huge biodiversity surrounded by numerous tea plantations. Considered to be among the richest biodiversity zones in the World, Assam harbors a wide variety of riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards, tropical and deciduous forests that constitute to the diverse floral wealth of the State. Protecting these wide variety of flora and fauna has always been of a prime interest of the State that has resulted in the creation of 7 important National Parks in the World at Kaziranga, Manas, Nameri, Orang, Dibru Saikhowa, Raimona and Dehing Patkai.
Name Of (Seven) 7 National Parks In Assam:-
- Kaziranga National Park
- Manas National Park
- Nameri National Park
- Orang National Park
- Dibru Saikhowa National Park
- Raimona National Park
- Dihing Patkai National Park
1. Kaziranga National Park – Assam
Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts of Assam , India. The sanctuary, which hosts two- third of the worlds great one-horned rhinoceroses. This is a world heritage site which declared by UNESCO in 1985.
- On 1 june 1905, the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest Was Created.
- In 1968, the state government passed the act of 1968, declared Kaziranga a Designated National park.
- The 430 square k:m: (166 sq mi) park was official status by by the central government on 1974.
- In 1985, Kaziranga was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO for its unique natural environment.
- The One-Horned Rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian Elephant, Wild water buffalo And Swamp Deer are Collectively Known As ‘BIG FIVE’ of Kaziranga.
Attraction Of Kaziranga National Parks –
You can get a glimpse of the One-horned Rhino, Swamp deer etc during the ‘Elephant Safari’ every morning. You can experience a sighting variety of wildlife by ‘Jeep Safari’, thousands of local and migratory birds flocking in wetlands and the scenic beauty of Karbi Anglong Hills.
Largest undivided representative area of Brahmaputra valley flood plain grassland, complex eco-system of grassland, where various stages of biotic succession in grassland eco-system are explicit.
The Park is the abode to more than 70% of One Horned Rhinoceros in the world. Highest density of tigers’ prey including the large prey biomass of tiger found in the country. Harbours more than 60% of India’s wild buffalo population along with the only population of the Eastern Swamp deer and seven species of turtles and tortoises. The other important wildlife found are – Leopard, Fishing Cat, other Lesser cats, Large Indian Civet, Small Indian Civet, Sambar, Barking deer, Hog deer, Gaur, Hog Badger, Hoolock Gibbon, Capped Langur, Assamese Macaque, Rhesus Macaque, Sloth Bear, Gangetic Dolphin and Otter etc.
Census figures of Big Five are – One horned Rhino – 1855 (2006), Swamp Deer – 468 (2000), Wild Buffalo – 1431 (2001), Tiger – 85 (2000), Elephant – 1246 (2005).
Home to 25 Globally Threatened and 21 Near Threatened species of birds. So far 480 bird species have been identified and recorded in the Park. The Baza, Bengal Florican, Hornbills, Osprey etc. are the endangered species. Presence of Pelicans and various waterfowls both resident and migratory etc.
Aquatic Flora & Fauna –
More than 150 perennial water bodies are located inside the Park, where water level fluctuates temporally resulting in the generation of a very rich aquatic floral diversity. More than 32 species of flora have so far been identified. More than 60 species of fishes have been recorded and is the breeding ground of many of the local species.
2. Manas National Park – Assam
Located in the Himalayan foothill bhabar area in the western Assam, Manas was originally a game reserve since 1928 and became a Tiger Reserve in 1974, a World Heritage Site in 1985, a Biosphere Reserve in 1989. It was declared as a National Park in 1990 with an area of 500 sq. kms. It is also the core area of 2600 sq. kms. of Chirang Ripu Elephant Reserve. The park harbours more than 22 endangered species which are designated as Schedule 1 species in the Wildlife Protection Act and enjoy the highest level of protection. Manas is famous for its unique scenic beauty and to quote the UNESCO World Heritage Tag declaration – Manas contains superlative natural phenomena/ areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. It is also designated as an Important Bird Area with more than 500 species of birds. The biodiversity of Manas is clearly brought out by UNESCO through the following words:
‘In total, there are nearly 60 mammal species, 42 reptile species, 7 amphibians and 500 species of birds, of which 26 are globally threatened. The range of habitats and vegetation also accounts for high plant diversity that includes 89 tree species, 49 shrubs, 37 under shrubs, 172 herbs and 36 climbers. Fifteen species of orchids, 18 species of fern and 43 species of grasses that provide vital forage to a range of ungulate species also occur here.’
Rhino, Elephant, Tiger, Pygmy hog, Hispid hare, Golden langur, Assamese Macaque, Rhesus Macaque, Leopard, Golden Cat, Clouded leopard, Fishing cat, Leopard cat, Jungle Cat, the Large Indian civet, the Small Indian civet, Common palm civet or Toddy cat, Himalaya palm civet, Binturong, Common mongoose, Small Indian mongoose, Himalayan black bear, Sloth bear, Gaur, Water buffalo, Sambar, Hog deer, Barking deer, Swamp deer, Wild pigs etc.
Census figures of Big Five are – One horned Rhino – 28 (2016), Swamp Deer -100 (2017), Wild Buffalo – 503 (2017), Tiger – 31 (2016-17), Elephant – 1034(2017).
Home to 476 bird species. White-Bellied Heron, Bengal Florican, Slender-Billed Vulture, White Rumped Vulture, King Vulture etc. are the critically endangered species found in Manas. Other birds like Pelicans, Storks, Eagles, Ibis, Hornbills, Parrot bills, and Parakeets are found here.
More than 200 species of butterflies have been recorded at Manas. These include the Common Mormon, Common Sailor, Peacock Pansy etc.
Aquatic Fauna –
More than 79 species of fishes have been recorded in Manas. The Assam Roof Turtle, the Narrow Headed Softshell Turtle are also found here.
Related – Indian Geography
3. Nameri National park – Assam
The Nameri National Park of 200 sq. kms. area is located in the Sonitpur district, bordering Arunachal Pradesh and it is also the core area of Nameri Tiger Reserve (344 Sq. Km.). One can enjoy rafting in the Jia Bhoroli river in the south-western boundary.
Tiger, Leopard, Clouded Leopard, Elephant, Gaur, Wild Pigs, Sambar, Barking Deer, Hispid hare, Slow Loris, Capped Langur, Dhole, Sloth Bear, Burmese ferret Badger, Binturong etc.
White Winged Wood duck, Palla’s fish-eagle, Lesser Adjutant Stork, Greater spotted Eagle, White ramped vulture, Longo billed vulture, Black bellied Term, Rufous–necked Hornbill, Wreathed Hornbill, Great Pied Hornbill etc.
Assam Roofed Turtle, Indian Soft-Shell Turtle, Indian Flap Shell Turtle, Keeled Box Turtle, South East Asian Leaf Turtle, Common Blind Snake, Myanmarese Python, Indian Cobra, King Cobra, Pit Viper, Monitor Lizard.
4. Orang national Park – Assam
The oldest game reserve of the State just on the northern bank of river Brahmaputra with an area of 78.80 sq. kms. and an important breeding ground for varieties of Fishes.
What you expect to see:
Rhinoceros, Tiger, Maljuria Elephants (male elephants in group), Hog Deer, Wild Pig, Civet Cat, Porcupine and Gangetic Dolphin.
222 species of Birds have so far been recorded, some of which are Spot Billed Pelican, White Pelican, Greater Adjutant Stork, Lesser Adjutant Stork, Brahminy Duck, Pintail Duck, Bengal Florican(2nd highest concentration) etc.
Indian Rock Python, Black Krait, King Cobra, Cobra, Monitor Lizard.
Seven species of Turtle and Tortoise.
5. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park – Assam
It is a National Park as well as a Biosphere Reserve having an area of 340 sq. kms. in Tinsukia district.A unique habitat endemic to Dibru-Saikhowa only, a habitat which has undergone radical transformation after the great earthquake of 1950. The migratory birds are a major attraction.
36 species of mammals have so far been recorded – Tiger, Elephant, Leopard, Jungle Cat, Bears, Small Indian Civet, Squirrels, Gangetic Dolphin, Slow Loris, Assamese Macaque, Rhesus Macaque, Capped Langur, Hoolock Gibbon, Wild Pigs, Sambar, Barking Deer, Water Buffalo, Feral Horses etc.
It is an identified Important Bird Area (IBA) having more than 382 species of Birds, some of which are Greater Adjutant Stork, Lesser Adjutant Stork, Greater Crested Grebe, Large Cormorant, Open bill Stork, Black necked Stork, Large Whistling Teal, Grey leg Goose, Grey-headed Fishing Eagle, Griffon Vulture, Osprey, Crested Serpent Eagle, Spot Billed Pelican, White Winged Wood Duck, Baer’s Pochard, Greater Spotted Eagle, Pale Capped Pigeon, Great Pied Hornbill, Marsh Babbler, Jerdon’s Babbler, Black Breasted Parrot bill, etc. The park is renowned for natural regeneration of Salix trees.
6. Raimona National Park – Assam
Prime attraction –
With around 11 forest types and sub-types, Raimona National Park is the most biodiversity-rich forest belt in Assam.
In 1875-76, sal-bearing forest was brought under systematic scientific management.
Bodoland’s mascot Golden Langur is the prime attraction of Raimona. An endangered species, Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geel) is found in sizeable numbers in pockets of western Assam and Bhutan.
Golden Langur shares its space with Asian Elephant, Royal Bengal Tiger, Clouded Leopard, Indian Gaur, Wild Buffalo, Spotted Deer, Hornbill, several species of orchids, more than 150 species of butterflies, 170 species of birds and 380 species of plants.
With such rich diversity of flora and fauna, the Raimona National Park is bound to be a major site for tourism, research and conservation.
7. Dihing Patkai National Park – Assam
It is located within the larger Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, which spreads across the coal- and oil-rich districts of Upper Assam (Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts).
The oldest refinery of Asia in Digboi and ‘open cast’ coal mining at Lido are located near the sanctuary.
The Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary is also known as the Jeypore Rainforest.
Dihing is the name of the river that flows through this forest and Patkai is the hill at the foot of which the sanctuary lies.
It is believed to be the last remaining contiguous patch of lowland rainforest area in Assam.
Rare fauna found in the region include Chinese pangolin, flying fox, wild pig, sambar, barking deer, gaur, serow and Malayan giant squirrels.
It is the only sanctuary in India which is home to seven different species of wild cats – tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, leopard cat, golden cat, jungle cat and marbled cat.
Assamese macaque, a primate found in the forest, is in the red list of Near Threatened species.
It has the highest concentration of the rare endangered White Winged Wood Duck.
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